Dual origin of turtles and triple origin of whales abstracts

It used to be easier to get papers published.
The following are manuscripts independently published online without peer-review at the DavidPetersStudio.com website. http://www.davidpetersstudio.com/papers.htm

Better to put it out there this way
than to let this work remain suppressed. Hope this helps clarify issues.


Peters D 2018a. The Dual Origin of Turtles from Pareiasaurs
PDF of manuscript and figures

The origin of turtles (traditional clade: Testudines) has been a vexing problem in paleontology. New light was shed with the description of Odontochelys, a transitional specimen with a plastron and teeth, but no carapace. Recent studies nested Owenetta (Late Permian), Eunotosaurus (Middle Permian) and Pappochelys (Middle Triassic) as turtle ancestors with teeth, but without a carapace or plastron. A wider gamut phylogenetic analysis of tetrapods nests Owenetta, Eunotosaurus and Pappochelys far from turtles and far apart from each other. Here dual turtle clades arise from a clade of stem turtle pareiasaurs. Bunostegos (Late Permian) and Elginia (Late Permian) give rise to dome/hard-shell turtles with late-surviving Niolamia (Eocene) at that base, inheriting its Baroque horned skull from Elginia. In parallel, Sclerosaurus (Middle Triassic) and Arganaceras (Late Permian) give rise to flat/soft-shell turtles with Odontochelys (Late Triassic) at that base. In all prior phylogenetic analyses taxon exclusion obscured these relationships. The present study also exposes a long-standing error. The traditional squamosal in turtles is here identified as the supratemporal. The actual squamosal remains anterior to the quadrate in all turtles, whether fused to the quadratojugal or not.


Peters D 2018b. The Triple Origin of Whales
PDF of manuscript and figures

Workers presume the traditional whale clade, Cetacea, is monophyletic when they support a hypothesis of relationships for baleen whales (Mysticeti) rooted on stem members of the toothed whale clade (Odontoceti). Here a wider gamut phylogenetic analysis recovers Archaeoceti + Odontoceti far apart from Mysticeti and right whales apart from other mysticetes. The three whale clades had semi-aquatic ancestors with four limbs. The clade Odontoceti arises from a lineage that includes archaeocetids, pakicetids, tenrecs, elephant shrews and anagalids: all predators. The clade Mysticeti arises from a lineage that includes desmostylians, anthracobunids, cambaytheres, hippos and mesonychids: none predators. Right whales are derived from a sister to Desmostylus. Other mysticetes arise from a sister to the RBCM specimen attributed to Behemotops. Basal mysticetes include Caperea (for right whales) and Miocaperea (for all other mysticetes). Cetotheres are not related to aetiocetids. Whales and hippos are not related to artiodactyls. Rather the artiodactyl-type ankle found in basal archaeocetes is also found in the tenrec/odontocete clade. Former mesonychids, Sinonyx and Andrewsarchus, nest close to tenrecs. These are novel observations and hypotheses of mammal interrelationships based on morphology and a wide gamut taxon list that includes relevant taxa that prior studies ignored. Here some taxa are tested together for the first time, so they nest together for the first time.


Both of these manuscripts benefit from
ongoing studies at the large reptile tree (LRT, 1247 taxa) in which taxon exclusion possibilities are minimized and all included taxa can trace their ancestry back to Devonian tetrapods.

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