the privately-held ‘Painten pterodactyl’ (Tischlinger and Frey 2013) is a perfectly articulated small specimen (Figs. 1-4). Phylogenetically it nests in the large pterosaur tree (LPT, 232 taxa) at the base of the clade that leads to Pterodactylus (Fig. 5), just off the path toward Germanodactylus…and it’s not too far removed from its Scaphognathus ancestors (Fig. 5).
If you want to learn about pterosaurs,
start with this one (Figs. 1-4). The Painten pterodactyl makes it easy to see all the bones in natural (undisturbed) articulation. Even the sternal complex (magenta) is visible below all the other pectoral bones.
has the standard premaxilla with four teeth per side. Traditionally overlooked tiny secondary nares are visible. The temporal arch is very low on the skull.
(Fig. 3) includes an excellent vestigial manual digit 5 curled up on the palmar side of the left hand. That is an unexpected taphonomic displacement because in vivo digit 5 would be on the axially torsioned dorsal side of the manus. The vestige appears to be coming up around the crushed edge where metacarpal 5 is buried underneath. The carpals and digit 5 show some dislocation, which may explain how the remains of digit 5 ended up on the palmar side of the manus.
The feet, tail and wingtips
include a disarticulated bone from the base of the tail. Unguals tipped all five pedal digits. one wing bone (m4.4) was broken and healed in life.
We first looked at
the Painten pro-pterodactylid here in March, 2014.
The disappearance of the maxilla ascending process
and the appearance of the tiny secondary naris and nasal descending process appear during phylogenetic miniaturization in this clade.
With the majority of the confluent fenestra
devoted to the naris, perhaps we should think of this opening differently.
Big compared to its sisters,
the Painten pterosaur is the last in this lineage to have robust cervicals, based on comparison to Ningchengopterus (Fig. 6), a taxon closer to the many Solnhofen pterodactylids in museum collections (Fig. 7). This phylogenetic variety exhibited with Solnhofen and Chinese pterosaurs suggests a wide distribution for this clade in the Late Jurassic.
This pterosaur is an ideal teaching specimen because it has all of its bones in articulation and nests at a transitional node in pterosaur phylogeny.
Tischlinger H and Frey E 2013. Ein neuer Pterosaurier mit Mosaikmerkmalen basaler und pterodactyloider Pterosauria aus dem Ober-Kimmeridgium von Painten (Oberpfalz, Deutschland) — A new pterosaur with mosaic characters of basal and pterodactyloid pterosauria from the Upper Kimmeridgian of Painten (Upper Palatinate, Germany) Archaeopteryx 31:1-13.