Whenever taxon exclusion mistakes are made and reviewed here,
I try to write to the lead author of the paper. Below is a recent email directed to Professor Dudgeon et al. 2020 on their recent review of the well-preserved skull of Champsosaurus (Figs. 1, 3), which they re-examined using computed tomography analysis.
Dear Dr. Dudgeon:
It’s always good to see new studies on old skulls.
Based on phylogenetic bracketing the bone traditionally identified as the ‘nasal’ is the ascending process of the premaxilla. That makes the purported ‘prefrontal’ a fused nasal + prefrontal. The postorbital and postfrontal are mislabeled with the other bone identity based on Tchoria (Fig. 2), a taxon not mentioned in your text. See attached.
Choristoderes are not ‘neodiapsid reptiles.’ Phylogenetically they are archosauriformes arising from Proterosuchus, Elachistosuchus and Tchoria. Phylogenetic miniaturization in that lineage lost the antorbital fenestra. See links below.
So, the Dudgeon et al. paper
is yet another great example of a situation in which phylogenetic analysis and bracketing (= comparing related taxa) sheds more light on a specimen than high-resolution micro-computed tomography scanning and/or adding characters (= looking more deeply into one taxon to the exclusion of others).
The greatest benefit
available from the large reptile tree (LRT, 1631 taxa) is this sort of phylogenetic bracketing based on the validated nesting of sisters that have never been tested together in prior studies. You can look more deeply into one skull, as Dudgeon et al. did. Or you can examine many skulls, as ReptileEvolution.com and the LRT enable workers to do (Figs. 2, 4). In this case, using computed tomography on one skull did not put an end to traditional myths regarding the identity of bones in Champsosaurus.
Note to readers who like to harp on these issues:
More characters were not needed to resolve these problems. More taxa were needed.
Firsthand access + computed tomography did not help Dudgeon et al. Rather, a century-old drawing (Brown 1905, Fig. 3), access to several sister taxa for comparison (Figs. 2, 4) and Adobe Photoshop were the tools needed to resolve this issue.
It helps to know what you are dealing with.
Only a wide-gamut phylogenetic analysis that minimizes taxon exclusion can tell you where a specimen nests in the cladogram. Too often workers like Dudgeon et al. rely on vague citations, rather than running tests themselves or citing ongoing and self-repairing studies like the LRT. Publishing a mistake is to be avoided no matter how trivial.
Champsosaurus annectens (Cope 1876, Brown 1905) ~1.5 m in length, Late Cretaceous to Eocene. Champsosaurus was derived from a sister to Tchoiria, and was a sister to other choristoderes, such as Cteniogenys and Lazarussuchus. This clade must have originated in the Late Permian or Early Triassic, but fossils are chiefly from late survivors, hence the wide variety in their morphology.
Brown B 1905. The osteology of Champsosaurus Cope. Memoirs of the AMNH 9 (1):1-26. http://digitallibrary.amnh.org/dspace/handle/2246/63
Cope ED 1876.On some extinct reptiles and Batrachia from the Judith River and Fox Hills beds of Montana: Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia. 28, p. 340-359.
Dudgeon TW, Maddin HC, Evans DC & Mallon JC 2020. Computed tomography analysis of the cranium of Champsosaurus lindoei and implications for choristoderan neomorphic ossification. Journal of Anatomy (advance online publication)