Once a children’s book, now an academic paper on PeerJ.

The children’s book,
GIANTS of Land, Sea & Air – Past & Present (Fig. 1 PDF) came out in 1986 and featured all of the largest animals to scale on dozens of pages alongside humans for scale.

Figure 1. The cover of Giants, the book that launched my adult interest in dinosaurs, pterosaurs and everything inbetween.

Figure 1. The cover of Giants, the book that launched my adult interest in dinosaurs, pterosaurs and everything inbetween.

The PeerJ online academic paper
(McClain et al. 2015) featured many of the same sea creatures and many more (Fig. 2) to scale with a human swimming alongside. Lacking are any of the terrestrial, aerial and prehistoric creatures you’ll find in GIANTS.

Figure 2. Poster turned on end illustrating the largest creatures in the sea to scale from McClain et al. 2015,

Figure 2. Poster turned on end illustrating the largest creatures in the sea to scale from McClain et al. 2015,

Sorry I didn’t see this online paper when it first came out a few years ago. 
It just came to my attention today. I suppose the inspiration was by convergence, but 1986 was long enough ago that a 10-year-old reader then would have been close to forty in 2015.

I just got a thumb’s down from the PeerJ voters for wondering if any of the authors were aware of the earlier children’s book. First bad review I’ve had! Or was I not supposed to mention it at PeerJ?

McClain et al. (15 co-authors) 2015. Sizing ocean giants: patterns of intraspecific size variation in marine megafauna. PeerJ 3:e715; DOI 10.7717/peerj.715


Dinosaur books

At one time
I wanted to write and illustrate a dinosaur book. I had an idea for one (Fig. 1) and was inspired by the writers and artists of the Dinosaur Renaissance. It took several years…

Figure 1. The cover of Giants, the book that launched my adult interest in dinosaurs, pterosaurs and everything inbetween.

Figure 1. The cover of Giants, the book that launched my adult interest in dinosaurs, pterosaurs and everything inbetween.

I got a contract to do my first book. That begat another and another. The shelf life was no more than one year for any of them. None went to second editions, though several had foreign versions. Reviews were good. Libraries stocked them. Book signings were fun, when there was advanced publicity. Every so often there was a big or small check in the mail. Now Amazon keeps them alive, if just barely. Reviews are still good…

I would not want to write and illustrate another dinosaur book. New discoveries make at least part of the text and part of the depiction of its subjects obsolete, sometimes before shelf life is over. The amount of data needed to be covered is staggering. More pages mean the price the book rises out of the ability to pay for many potential readers. With book publication, there are no ‘do-overs’ or ‘updates.’ What’s done is done. And then there are always the nagging typos. There’s a lot of work involved. And it has to be polished perfect. Editors, working for publishers, have their say. So do collaborators, if any. You have to put your life on hold to get the thing done by deadline. And when it’s done, it sits on a bookstore shelf, just one more Christmas or birthday present vying for the consumer’s eye.

It’s much better to post blogs
and nurture growing websites, like ReptileEvolution.com. These can be updated at will in one’s spare time. There are no paper or printing costs. No ships and trucks to distribute them. No bookstores to deal with. No deadlines. News can be reviewed within a day, while it’s still fresh. Everyone in the world has free access to your work. They can focus in on what they really like and ignore the rest at no cost. And one more thing (quoting Steve Jobs) that books can’t provide: animation. There’s no profit in web publishing, but money was never the front and center issue.

Figure 2. Sample animation you’ll never see in a book. The Vienna specimen of Pterodactylus (wings folded). Animation opens the wings and legs to reveal the true shape of pterosaur wings, stretched between the elbow and wingtip with a short fuselage fillet extending from elbow to mid femur.

Even so
I’m glad I went through that book phase. It had its time and place. The process led me to interact with others of like interest. Some of them are PhDs. Others are fellow artists and writers. Everyone should have a hobby to keep in touch with the world and vice versa.

I was inspired to write this blog post
after seeing parts of Walking with Dinosaurs 3D on YouTube. Click here to see it. So much talent and effort went into this— truly outstanding visuals …but the dialog was horrible, as most others agree. And there are a few new dinosaur books out now, updating older dino books. I wish them all well. Someday, perhaps decades from now, those books will either be considered cherished classics or outdated, ready to be updated. It’s all good.


A Dinosaur Year 1989 Calendar

This ‘blast from the past’ by request: 
Click here or on image to download all 13 lorez images from my 1989 Dinosaur Year calendar, published by Alfred A. Knopf, New York. Thanks for the request, Leo!

I see two copies are presently available from Amazon.com here.

Click to download PDF of cover + 12 months of 1989 Dinosaur Year Calendar pix by David Peters at 72 dpi. It's over 25 years old and you'll find mistakes here. It was a product of its time.

Click to download PDF of cover + 12 months of 1989 Dinosaur Year Calendar pix by David Peters at 72 dpi. It’s over 25 years old and you’ll find mistakes here. It was a product of its time.

The calendar is over 25 years old
and you’ll find mistakes galore. It was a product of its time and the first time I ever painted dinosaurs in settings.

This followed
the book GIANTS and A Gallery of Dinosaurs, which illustrated dinosaurs on white backgrounds, all to the same scale. Both books are available as pdf files here and as used books at several online sites.

Where are the originals?
Collectors purchased all the originals except for the Brachiosaurus family in a pond (December) because it has a razor knife cut in the sky over the mountain top, inflicted upon opening the package at the publisher. It’s hanging on the wall over my monitor as I type this and I never notice the slit.

But wait! There’s more!
Click here to connect to a FREE build-it-yourself paper Pteranodon model.
And click here to connect to a FREE build-it-yourself paper Thalassomedon model.
All you need is 8.5×11″ bristol (stiff) paper, some glue or tape and a scissors or knife. Have fun, kids!

The Tyrannosaur Chronicles by David Hone

A new book
by Dr. David Hone called The Tyrannosaur Chronicles is now out. He reports here, “Although there is no more famous and recognisable dinosaur than Tyrannosaurus, the public perception of the animal is often greatly at odds with the science. The major image people have of them is the iconic jeep chasing scene in the film Jurassic Park. However, because they are among the best-studied of all dinosaurs, we can say that the tyrannosaurs almost certainly had feathers and may have fought and even ate each other.”

Figure 1. The Tyrannosaur Chronicles by Dr. David Hone is a new book chronicling tyrannosaurs.

Figure 1. The Tyrannosaur Chronicles by Dr. David Hone is a new book chronicling tyrannosaurs.

I have not read the book yet, but I’ll note a possible problem gleaned from quote pulled from a review.

Kirkus Reviews reports: While correctly surmising that tyrannosaurs and other dinosaurs were carnivores, scientists erroneously assumed that they were some kind of previously unknown “giant land reptile.” Subsequent fossil discoveries in polar regions ruled out this possibility since coldblooded reptiles could not survive such extreme cold weather.”

I hope this is a misquote or I’m misreading this. It’s not news that tyrannosaurs and dinosaurs have been and will always be giant land reptiles. They nest in the clade Reptilia, no matter how cold-adapted they might have been. Hone might be going back, back in time to the first English discoveries from 50 years earlier, like Iguanodon and Megalosaurus, the first dinosaurs, which were named terrible lizards, and originally titled, “British Fossil Reptiles.”

And I hate to judge a book by its cover, but…
That small crested dinosaurs in the lower left corner is Guanlong, an ancestor not of tyrannosaurs, but of allosaurs in the large reptile tree. No word yet if Hone included the verified ancestors of tyrannosaurs, Zhenyuanlong, Tianyuraptor and Fukuiraptor.  On that note, GotScience.org evidently quotes Hone when it reports, Early tyrannosaurs had crests used for sexual display and social rank.”

Book and academic publishing is fraught with such risk and danger. Once you print it, you can’t retract or revise it. Sympathetically, I know from experience the things I would have changed about my early papers now, but was less experienced then.

I hear that Hone discusses feathers and such.

Amazon Reviews are universally positive:

  1. Dinosaurs are endlessly fascinating, and the massive, blood-thirsty tyrannosaurs are most popular (and scary) of the lot! Here, renowned dinosaur expert David Hone reveals their story, and how we know what we know about these most amazing of ancient reptiles. — Professor Mike Benton, University of Bristol
  2. Tyrannosaurs are probably the world’s favourite dinosaurs. But what do we really know about this group? David Hone reviews the biology, history, evolution, and behaviour of the tyrant kings – an excellent read, containing the very latest in our understanding of Tyrannosaurus rex and its closest relatives. — Dr Tom Holtz, University of Maryland
  3. Without doubt, the best book on tyrannosaurs I’ve ever read. This is an awesome dinosaur book. — Professor Xu Xing, Chinese Academy of Sciences

Do not be confused with this website:
http://traumador.blogspot.com which earlier featured ‘Traumador the tyrannosaur in the Tyrannosaurus Chronicles’ which can be silly and serious all on the same blog, explained here as:

The Tyrannosaur Chronicles is a blog written by Traumador the Tyrannosaur about his many exploits.Traumador is a tyrannosaurid who hatched from an egg that magically survived the K/Pg Extinction Event and was discovered in Alberta by Craig, an aspiring paleontologist (and the mastermind behind the blog in real life). He eventually gets a job at the Royal Tyrell Museum and things get interesting from there.

From past experience,
such as when Hone attempted to compare the two hypotheses of pterosaur origins by dropping one, or when Hone attempted to show that Dmorphodon had a mandibular fenestra, or when Hone supported the deep chord bat wing model for pterosaur wings, or when Hone flipped the wingtips of Bellubrunnus, we might be wary about what Dr. Hone puts out there. But I don’t think you can go very wrong with tyrannosaurs, the most studied dinosaur. And the reviews speak high praise.

The Dinosaur Heresies NYTimes Book Review from 1986

the_dinosaur_heresies200Now almost 30 years old, here’s something you might like to read (perhaps again?).
This is the NY Times book review of Dr. Robert Bakker’s ‘The Dinosaur Heresies’ from 1986. You can read the complete original here. I went to the prophesies below and marked them with a [+] or a [-] for those supported today or not and for those that are still questionable: [?].

Dinosaur Mysteries
Published: November 8, 1986

THE DINOSAUR HERESIES. New Theories Unlocking the Mystery of the Dinosuars and Their Extinction. By Robert T. Bakker. Illustrated. 481 pages. William Morrow & Company. $19.95.

Mr. [not Dr.?] Bakker has a quirky, free-floating imagination, and in the course of this book – which is generously illustrated with his own charming sketches – he raises many offbeat questions: Were changes in dinosaur eating patterns responsible for the evolution of flowering plants? [+] Did pink pterodactyls exist? [?] What sort of lips did dinosaurs have? [+] Could a human being beat a tyrannosaurus at arm wrestling? [?]

Mr. Bakker, the adjunct curator at the University Museum in Boulder, Colo., has published many papers in the field of vertebrate paleontology, and his book stands as an informative layman’s introduction to the wonderful world of dinosaurs while at the same time making an impassioned case for his own – sometimes heretical – views on their endurance and extinction. ”I’d be disappointed,” he writes, ”if this book didn’t make some people angry”; and given the often fiercely polarized world of vertebrate paleontology, he’s unlikely to be let down.

As Mr. Bakker sees it, dinosaurs have been given a bad rap over the years as ”failures in the evolutionary test of time” – portrayed as small-brained, cold-blooded sluggards who couldn’t ”cope with competition from the smaller, smarter, livelier mammals.” Such portraits, he suggests, are unfair as well as scientifically inaccurate: in the first place, dinosaurs dominated history for 130 million years [+] – a remarkably long period of time that attests to a decided ability to survive (the human species, in contrast, has only been around for 100,000 years). And while Mr. Bakker acknowledges that dinosaurs were probably not brilliant thinkers [+], he makes a persuasive argument for their physiological adaptability and their prodigious energy [+] – he even speculates that tyrannosaurus could gallop about at speeds approaching 45 miles an hour.  [-] 

Much of ”The Dinosaur Heresies,” in fact, revolves around the question of whether the animals were cold-blooded (and more closely related to reptiles) or, as Mr. Bakker contends, warm-blooded (and more closely related to mammals and birds) [+]. While he occasionally stops to summarize opposing viewpoints, he is less interested in presenting an objective overview of the field than in mustering evidence to support his own theories.

He argues that gizzards and large digestive tracts in [some] dinosaurs would have compensated for their weak teeth [+], enabling them to eat high quantities of land plants, necessary to support a high metabolic rate. He argues that birds and pterodactyls – both of which would have had to evolve high-pressure hearts and lungs before flight could have been achieved  [+] – descended from dinosaurs  [+] [-], and that it’s not unlikely that these ancestor dinosaurs were already equipped for high metabolism [+]. He argues that the dinosaurs’ ”adaptations for sex and intimidation” – horns, head-butting armor and all manner of bony frills -suggest that they led active, aggressive lives, uncharacteristic of lethargic, cold-blooded animals  [+]. He argues that the growth rate of dinosaurs more closely resembles that of mammals than reptiles [+]. And, finally, he argues that dinosaurs’ porous bone tissue indicates the sort of high blood-flow rate usually associated with warm-blooded creatures [?].

On the question of the dinosaurs’ demise, Mr. Bakker sides with those paleontologists who discount new theories of mass extinction caused by some sort of cosmic catastrophe – he cites evidence suggesting the extinctions occurred not during a single ”doomsday” period but over tens of thousands of years [+] [-] [?]. In his view, the development of new sorts of dinosaurs and other animals, combined with changes in the physical and genetic environment, gradually led to their doom [+] [-].

On a side note:
I liked Dr. Bakker’s quote about making some people angry with his novel ideas based on overlooked data.

On another side note:
like our antiquated notions about dinosaurs from over 30 years ago, pterosaurs today have been given a bad rap. They are still portrayed as ungainly quadrupeds, bound by membranes that tied their legs together and tied their wings to their ankles (along with a long list of other false paradigms). The data deniers, unfortunately, are still out there, thinking that if they just turn a blind eye toward certain data and hypotheses they will go away.

As everyone knows,
this blog, Pterosaur Heresies, was intended to approach data with the same verve and testing of false traditions that Dr. Bakker demonstrated.



Scathing Book Review – Pterosaurs by Mark Witton 2013 – part 2

I finally got the new Witton pterosaur book from Amazon.
Most of the topics you’ll read here have been posted before.

pterosaurs-wittonWith his new book, Pterosaurs, Witton (2013) continues to stick his head in the sand (or wear his professional blinders), avoiding and dismissing the best testable evidence for pterosaur origins, wing shape, take-off, phylogeny, ontogeny, morphology, gender identification and reproduction. (Which is why the Pterosaur Heresies is needed, to right these wrongs). Here’s yet another expert disfiguring pterosaurs big time.

Of  course his artwork is beautiful, flaws and all. And his writing style is friendly, informative and a joy to read, until you come up against bogus information and images. Then you wonder why has the world gone topsy-turvy, where amateurs provide better, more accurate evidence and more parsimonious explanations than professionals do?!

And it’s not just that we disagree.
I am pointing out factual errors here that can be tested by looking at specimens.

Case in point
Earlier we talked about the first few chapters of Pterosaurs in which Witton ignores the four outgroup taxa closest to pterosaurs: Langobardisaurus, Cosesaurus, Sharovipteryx and Longisquama. Witton did produce his version of Sharovipteryx, which explains much of the problem and why he dismissed it. Here it is (Fig.1). See if you can see where Witton pays little heed to accuracy.

Figure 2. This is what scientists call complete fantasy and total disregard for data. Upper images from Witton 2013, in which he simply made up the proportions of the pedal elements for Sharovipteryx. No wonder he didn't see the phylogenetic connection to pterosaurs! Below, the actual proportions traced from an 8x10 transparency taken after personal examination of the fossil. Like pterosaurs, cosesaurs, langobardisaurs,  Tanystropheus and Huehuecuetzpalli, Sharovipteryx had a short metatarsal 5 and an elongated p5.1. It's a key trait for this clade. Don't tell me pterosaurs just appeared out of nowhere. Here's the evidence of kinship.

Figure 2. This is what scientists call complete fantasy and total disregard for data. Upper images from Witton 2013, in which he simply made up the proportions of the pedal elements for Sharovipteryx. Lower image from yours truly after examining the specimen firsthand. No wonder he didn’t see the phylogenetic connection to pterosaurs! Like pterosaurs, cosesaurs, langobardisaurs, Tanystropheus and Huehuecuetzpalli, Sharovipteryx had a short metatarsal 5 and an elongated p5.1. It’s a key trait for this clade. Don’t tell me pterosaurs just appeared out of nowhere. Here’s the evidence of kinship.

I rolled my eyes so far back that I actually saw my brain.
Witton (2013) disfigured Sharovipteryx by completely imagining the proportions of the pedal elements. There’s not even a feeble attempt at accuracy here. And because Witton put his blinders on he completely missed the unique morphological similarities in the pes shared by Sharovipteryx and pterosaurs. This is why I earlier stated that Witton was ill-prepared to write a book on pterosaurs. This is not about ‘not knowing’ the correct data. This is about ‘not wanting to know’ the correct data, which has been around for forty years.

If you are of the opinion
that my work (Fig. 1) is flawed, check out the original paper, Sharov (1971), who made the same tracing.

And if you’re friends with Mark
Yes, he’s a great guy and tries hard, but he fkd up here. Don’t run to his defense. There is no defense for this. Earlier Witton slammed ReptileEvolution.com in general. Here, as elsewhere, I’m being surgically precise with my critique. I’m simply trying to lift the blinders off those who profess to be experts in pterosaurs. If you’re an expert, act like it. Be professional. Test ideas and observations. Don’t just follow tradition, especially when you profess to not know the answer. And for Pete’s sake, don’t make up things out of your imagination.

Note that,
even in his figure of Sharovipteryx, Witton ignores several other key traits shared with pterosaurs to the exclusion of basal archosaurs: 1) Elongated and retracted naris (long premaxilla); 2) Large orbit, or is that the antorbital fenestra?; 3) Short torso (knee can reach the shoulder); 4) Elongated ilium (capturing more than four sacrals); 5) Attenuated caudals with chevrons parallel and appressed to centra; 6) Tibia longer than femur: 7) Fibula attenuated and 8) the big one, uropatagia (soft tissue trailing the hind limbs (Witton invents most of the soft tissue in front of the femur. See Fig 3.)). Evidently Witton eschews hard evidence and phylogenetic analysis. I find it answers many, many problems.

Figure 2. Sharovipteryx mirabilis in various views. No pycnofibers added yet. Click to learn more.

Figure 3. Sharovipteryx mirabilis in various views. Trailing membrane on the hand is guesswork based on phylogenetic bracketing. Note, there is a soft tissue flap in front of the femur, but it does not connect to the torso, which, in reality is circular in dorsal view with wide flat ribs. And yes, Sharovipteryx has prepubes, a pterosaurian trait inherited from Cosesaurus.

Simply having an elongated pedal digit 5 puts Sharovipteryx and pterosaurs outside of virtually all archosauriforms (they have vestiges) and squarely in kinship with tritosaur lizards, like Huehuecuetzpalli, which shares some of the traits listed above.

Witton doesn’t like pterosaurs as highly derived lizards
Witton (2013, p. 17) reports, “There seems little similarity between the skulls of pterosaurs and the highly modified, mobile skulls of squamates, or any similarity between the trunk and limb skeletons of each group.” This is, of course, bogus data (imprecise to untrue) to draw you off. Pterosaurs are not related to squamates (Iguania and Scleroglossa), but to a third, more basal lepidosaur clade, the Tritosauria, that did not have a mobile skull and did not fuse the ankle bones. Again, putting his blinders on, and following in the footsteps of Dr. David Unwin, Witton does not introduce his readers to the following lepidosaurs: Huehuecuetzpalli, Macrocnemus, Cosesaurus and Longisquama, all of which demonstrate a gradually increasing list of pterosaur traits as detailed here.

In order to further dismiss my work, Witton references Hone and Benton (2007) which has been lauded as one of the worst papers of all time based on the fact that they set up a battle between the fenestrasaurs and archosaurs, then eliminated the fenestrasaurs from consideration and declared archosaurs the winners. They also had typos in their matrix (found by Bennett 2012) which they used to dismiss data. And there were many other problems listed here. I just want to ask Dr. Witton, “Where is the critical thinking?” I know it’s easy to cozy up to your friends’ work and difficult to accept others’, but really, you have to examine the evidence without bias.

Final pertinent note
Witton reports that my work has received little attention due to my “highly controversial techniques used in his analyses and anatomical interpretations.” At least I don’t just make the stuff up (see Fig. 1) !!!!! Dr. Witton, this is really “the pot calling the kettle black.” Please look at the specimen or get precise references next time. It will solve lots of problems and get us back on the right track.

As always, if anyone has better data, I am known to frequently make corrections wherever warranted. Just made a bunch this week.

More later.

Bennett SC 2012. 
The phylogenetic position of the Pterosauria within the Archosauromorpha re-examined. Historical Biology. iFirst article, 2012, 1–19.
Peters D 2000. A Redescription of Four Prolacertiform Genera and Implications for Pterosaur Phylogenesis. Rivista Italiana di Paleontologia e Stratigrafia 106 (3): 293–336.
Peters D 2011. A Catalog of Pterosaur Pedes for Trackmaker Identification. Ichnos 18(2):114-141. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10420940.2011.573605
Sharov AG 1971. New flying reptiles from the Mesozoic of Kazakhstan and Kirghizia. – Transactions of the Paleontological Institute, Akademia Nauk, USSR, Moscow, 130: 104–113 [in Russian].