Pterodactylus antiquus extreme closeups: Tischlinger 2020

Paleo-photographer Helmut Tischlinger 2020
brings us extreme closeups of the first pterosaur ever described, Pterodactylus antiquus (Figs 1–7), in white and UV light. Here both photos of the same area are layered precisely to demonstrate the different details each type of light brings out.

The text is German.
The abstract and photo captions are duplicated in English.

Pterodactylus antiquus (Collini 1784, Cuvier 1801, 1809, Sömmerring 1812, BSP Nr. AS I 739No. 4 of Wellnhofer 1970; Late Jurassic) was the first pterosaur to be described and named.

Figure 1. Reconstruction of Pterodactylus antiquus made prior to Tischlinger 2020.

Figure 1. Reconstruction of Pterodactylus antiquus made prior to Tischlinger 2020.

From the Abstract:
“On the occasion of the reopening of the Jura Museum Eichstätt on January 9, 2020, the Bavarian State Collection for Paleontology and Geology, Munich, provided the Jura Museum with one of its most valuable fossil treasures as a temporary loan. The “Collini specimen”, first described in 1784, is the first scientifically examined and published fossil of a pterosaur and has been at the center of interest of many natural scientists since it became known… An examination of the texture of the surface of the limestone slab and the dendrites on it suggests that it does not come from Eichstätt, as has been claimed by Collini, but most likely from the Zandt-Breitenhill quarry area about 30 km east of Eichstätt. For the first time, a detailed investigation and pictorial documentation were carried out under ultraviolet light, which on the one hand document the excellent preservation of the fossil, and on the other hand show that there has obviously been no damage or manipulation to this icon of pterosaurology during the past almost 240 years.”

Figure 2. Pterodactylus wing ungual.

Figure 2. Pterodactylus wing ungual in white light and UV. Not sure why the two images are not identical, but elsewhere teeth appear and disappear depending on the type of light used.

The wing tip ungual 
appears to be present in visible light, but changes to a blob under UV (Fig. 2). Other pterosaurs likewise retain an often overlooked wingtip ungual.

In the same image
the skin surrounding an oval secondary naris within the anterior antorbital fenestra appears. Otherwise very little soft tissues is preserved.

The ‘secondary naris’ may be a new concept for some,
so it is explained below. This is not the same concept as the hypothetical ‘confluent naris + antorbital fenestra’ you may have heard about. Remember, ‘pterodactloid’-grade pterosaurs arose 4x by convergence. So each had their own evolutionary path.

Figure 3. Pterodactylus rostrum from Tischlinger 2020, colors added here. Note the original naris appears as a vestige above the maxilla tip, as in the Triassic pterosaur, Bergamodactylus and the Pterodactylus ancestor, Scaphoganthus.

Figure 3. Pterodactylus rostrum from Tischlinger 2020, colors added here. Note the original naris appears as a vestige above the maxilla tip, as in the Triassic pterosaur, Bergamodactylus and the Pterodactylus ancestor, Scaphoganthus. The shape of that narial opening is different in UV and white light.

The elements of the paper-thin rostrum
are colorized here (Fig. 3). There are subtle differences between the white light and UV images. The pink color represents a portion of the nasal that extends to the anterior maxilla and naris as in other pterosaurs and tetrapods. Did I just say naris? Yes.

Note the original naris here appears as a vestige
in its usual place above the maxilla tip, as in the Triassic pterosaur, Bergamodactylus and the late-surviving Pterodactylus ancestor, Scaphoganthus. The transition to this vestigial naris is documented in the rarely published n9 (SoS 4593), n31 (SoS 4006) and SMNS 81775 tiny transitional taxa (Fig. 4). After testing, all these turn out to be miniaturized adults traditionally mistakenly considered to be juveniles, only by those pterosaur workers who have excluded these taxa from phylogenetic analysis.

Figure 2. Click to enlarge. Painten pterosaur compared to phylogenetic sister taxa. Ornithocephalus and SMNS 81775 are the basal taxa here. Note that while everything else grows on derived taxa, the metacarpus stays the same size. The large size of the Painten pterosaur, along with the greater length of pedal digit 3 and the brevity of the metacarpus sets it apart in its own clade, of which this the first known representative. Larger than its relatives, this is an unlikely juvenile (contra Hone, see below).

Figure 4. Click to enlarge. Painten pterosaur compared to phylogenetic sister taxa. Ornithocephalus and SMNS 81775 are the basal taxa here. Note that while everything else grows on derived taxa, the metacarpus stays the same size. The large size of the Painten pterosaur, along with the greater length of pedal digit 3 and the brevity of the metacarpus sets it apart in its own clade, of which this the first known representative. Larger than its relatives, this is an unlikely juvenile (contra Hone, see below).

That’s why it is so important
to include all pterosaurs specimens as taxa in analysis. Otherwise you will miss the phylogenetic miniaturization that occurs at the genesis of major clades, the phylogenetic variation within a genus, and the evolution of new traits that have been overlooked by all other pterosaur workers.

Figure 2. Pterodactylus metacarpus including 5 digits.

Figure 5. Pterodactylus metacarpus including 5 digits. Colors added here.

The elements of the right metacarpus
are better understood and communicated when colorized (Fig. 4). Not sure where the counter plate is, but it may include some of the elements missing here, like the distal mc1. The left manus digit 5 is on that counter plate, judging from the broken bone left behind on the plate.

Figure 6. Pterodactylus antiquus pes in situ and restored to in vivo appearance.

Figure 6. Pterodactylus antiquus pes in situ and restored to in vivo appearance.

The pes is well preserved
Adding DGS colors to the elements helps one shift them back to their invivo positions. The addition of PILs (parallel interphalangeal lines, Peters 2000) complete the restoration. This is a plantigrade pes, judging by the continuous PILs that other workers continue to ignore.

Figure 6. Pterodactylus in situ under white light and UV from Tischlinger 2020. Colors added here.

Figure 7. Pterodactylus in situ under white light and UV from Tischlinger 2020. Colors added here.

Sometimes PhDs overlook certain details.
And that’s okay. Others will always come along afterward to build on their earlier observations. Tischlinger 2020 provides that excellent opportunity.


References
Collini CA 1784. Sur quelques Zoolithes du Cabinet d’Histoire naturelle de S. A. S. E. Palatine & de Bavière, à Mannheim. Acta Theodoro-Palatinae Mannheim 5 Pars Physica, 58–103.
Cuvier G 1801. [Reptile volant]. In: Extrait d’un ouvrage sur les espèces de quadrupèdes dont on a trouvé les ossemens dans l’intérieur de la terre. Journal de Physique, de Chimie et d’Histoire Naturelle 52: 253–267.
Cuvier G 1809. Mémoire sur le squelette fossile d’un reptile volant des environs d’Aichstedt, que quelques naturalistes ont pris pour un oiseau, et dont nous formons un genre de Sauriens, sous le nom de Petro-Dactyle. Annales du Muséum national d’Histoire Naturelle, Paris 13: 424–437.
Peters D 2000. Description and Interpretation of Interphalangeal Lines in Tetrapods. Ichnos, 7: 11-41
Tischlinger H 2020. Der „Collini-Pterodactylus“ – eine Ikone der Flugsaurier-Forschung Archaeopteryx 36: 16–31; Eichstätt 2020.
von Soemmering ST 1812. Über einen Ornithocephalus. Denkschriften der Akademie der Wissenschaften München, Mathematischen-physikalischen Classe 3: 89-158.
Wellnhofer P 1970. Die Pterodactyloidea (Pterosauria) der Oberjura-Plattenkalke Süddeutschlands. Abhandlungen der Bayerischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, N.F., Munich 141: 1-133.

wiki/Pterodactylus

 

 

 

 

Rhamphorhynchus: Zittel wingtip ungual in higher resolution

The Zittel wing
of Rhamphorhynchus preserves a complete and unfolded pterosaur wing (brachiopatagium + propatagium). Because the specimen (B St 1880.II.8) documents a narrow-chord construction it was purposefully omitted from the earlier study by Elgin, Hone and Frey (2010) who wished all their pterosaur wings were of the invalidated and traditional deep chord variety. None are (Peters 2002). Yet the tradition continues as seen in David Attenborough videos and Bennett (2016) papers.

As a scientist,
I prefer cold hard evidence (Figs. 1-3) with regard to pterosaur wing shape. Let’s hope you do, too.

Figure 1. Zittel wing (Rhamphorhynchus) with ungual area color spectrum expanded.

Figure 1. Zittel wing (Rhamphorhynchus) with ungual area color spectrum expanded. Details in figure 2. Note the narrow chord of this nearly perfect specimen with the membrane stretched between the elbow and wingtip, not the hind limb and wing tip. This is hard evidence. This is reality.

Today
we’ll take a closer peek at the typically overlooked wing tip ungual, phalanx 5 of manual digit 4 (m4.5) that we looked at earlier in less detail. Few to no pterosaur workers and other paleontologists recognize the presence of this bone. Rarely workers (Koroljov AV 2017) consider the wing finger to be digit 5 and the pteroid digit 1. Not true (Peters 2009). Just because the wingtip claw is tiny, doesn’t mean it’s not present. You just have to look carefully and use the tools available (Photoshop) to bring it out so others can easily see it (Fig. 2).

Figure 2. Zittel wing m4.5, wingtip ungual in situ, plus with the color spectrum (image levels in Photoshop) expanded.

Figure 2. Zittel wing m4.5, wingtip ungual in situ, plus with the color spectrum (image levels in Photoshop) expanded. Yes, it gets fuzzy when it is enlarged so much, but the hook shape is readily apparent surrounded by excavation.

We nested the Zittel wing
earlier with other Rhamphorhynchus specimens in the large pterosaur tree (LPT, Fig. 3). Although ungual 4.5 is apparent (Figs. 1,2), manual digit 5 is not visible in the Zittel wing due to a ventral exposure of the specimen.

Figure 2. The Zittel wing specimen B St 188 II 8 nests between the 'dark wing' JME specimen and the MTM specimen, both in the Rhamphorhynchus muensteri clade.

Figure 2. The Zittel wing specimen B St 188 II 8 nests between the ‘dark wing’ JME specimen and the MTM specimen, both in the Rhamphorhynchus muensteri clade.

Despite having the specimen in his hands,
Bennett 2016 overlooked the ungual at the wingtip. He proximally extends the propatagium to the neck, rather than the deltopectoral crest. Worse yet, he added lots of proximal wing membrane that was never there in the Zittel wing (Fig. 3). No pterosaur documents wing membranes extending past the knee. No pterosaur documents uropatagia attaching to pedal digit 5. No pterosaur documents a propatagium extending proximally beyond the deltopectoral crest.

Figure 3. Base reconstruction of Zittel wing by Bennett 2016 where he imagined a great deal of patagium between the elbow and knee. Here the hind limbs are rotated laterally, the patagium is stretched between the elbow and wingtip. Femoral and numeral muscles are estimated. 

Figure 3. Base reconstruction of Zittel wing by Bennett 2016 where he imagined a great deal of patagium between the elbow and knee. Here the hind limbs are rotated laterally, the patagium is stretched between the elbow and wingtip. Femoral and numeral muscles are estimated.

Strictly follow your data.
Don’t enhance it with imaginary tissues. And don’t overlook real data.

References
Bennett SC 2016. New interpretation of the wings of the pterosaur Rhamphorhynchus muensteri based on the Zittel and Marsh specimens. Journal of Paleontology 89 (5):845-886. DOI: 10.1017/jpa.2015.68
Elgin RA, Hone DWE and Frey E 2011. The extent of the pterosaur flight membrane. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 56 (1), 2011: 99-111. doi: 10.4202/app.2009.0145
Koroljov AV 2017. The Flight of Pterosaurs.Biol Bull Rev 7: 179. doi:10.1134/S2079086417030045
Peters D 2002. A New Model for the Evolution of the Pterosaur Wing – with a twist. – Historical Biology 15: 277–301.
Peters D 2009. A reinterpretation of pteroid articulation in pterosaurs. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 29:1327-1330.

A new Rhamphorhynchus with soft tissue: TMP 2008.41.001

A new PeerJ paper by Hone, Henderson, Therrien and Habib (2015) reports on a new complete, articulated (with a crushed and scattered torso) Rhamphorhynchus specimen, TMP 2008.41.001, the Tyrrell specimen (Fig. 1).

Figure 1. The new Tyrrell specimen of Rhamphorhynchus.

Figure 1. The new Tyrrell specimen of Rhamphorhynchus.

One species
Hone et al report, “Here we follow Bennett (1995) in considering all Solnhofen specimens of Rhamphorhynchus to belong to a single species, R. muensteri.” This is wrong and lazy. Phylogenetic analysis (Fig. 2), which Hone et al do not attempt, divides this genus into several clades. Even the feet have distinct pedal proportions. The Tyrrell specimen nests at the base of the JME SOS 4785 (Darkwing specimen) clade and is similar in size to other clade members.

Figure 2. Cladogram of Rhamphorhynchus.

Figure 2. Cladogram of Rhamphorhynchus. See, they’re not all one species. And phylogenetic miniaturization occurred at the genesis of this genus.

Juveniles and subadults?
Hone et al. report, “The genus has previously been split into a dozen or more species but these have convincingly been shown to consist of juveniles and subadults of a single species (see Bennett, 1995 for a review).” This is also wrong. We know from several single genus bone beds that hatchlings and juveniles of all tested pterosaurs had adult proportions. We know from phylogenetic analysis that a juvenile Rhamphorhynchus was recovered in phylogenetic analysis because it scored identical to an adult but was less than half as tall.

The specimen used to be in a private collection
of the quarry owners. It was discovered in 1965 and recently sold to the Tyrrell. It is preserved in ventral view with light impressions of wing membranes and a trapezoidal tail vane.

The skull
Hone et al. report, “Some sutures in the skull can be tentatively identified but these are mostly not clear, either because they are being obliterated as a result of cranial fusion during ontogeny, or owing to crushing of elements.” Here (Fig. 3). DGS colorizes the skull bones. I did not notice any obliteration in the sutures.

Figure 3. Rhamphorhynchus Tyrrell specimen after DGS colorizing of the bones.

Figure 3. Rhamphorhynchus Tyrrell specimen after DGS colorizing of the bones.

The teeth
Hone et al. considered the tooth count (twelve uppers, ten lowers) “higher than normal” for Rhamphorhynchus (ten uppers, seven lowers), but the extras appear to be incipient teeth or tooth tips from the right side of the skull.

Sacrum
Hone et al. identify four sacrals (Fig. 5), not counting the anterior vertebrae that lie between the ilia and sends out processes to the anterior ilia.

Caudals
Hone et al. report, “The divisions between the vertebrae are difficult to distinguish along the majority of the length of the tail and parts are covered by the left pes, so a vertebral count is not possible.” I had less of an issue while applying DGS (Fig. 4). But then I had only a jpeg, not the real thing. The photo looks good. Is this a case where DGS trumps first hand observation? See figure 6 for comparison.

Figure 4. Rhamphorhynchus, Tyrrell specimen, caudals. They are distinct from one another contra Hone et al. 2015.

Figure 4. Rhamphorhynchus, Tyrrell specimen, caudals. They are distinct from one another contra Hone et al. 2015. Click to enlarge.

Dorsal ribs
Hone et al. report, “Numerous dorsal ribs and gastralia are preserved on the specimen but a count is not possible given that many elements overlap one another.” This is exactly what DGS does best (Fig. 5) because the eye get overwhelmed by the chaos and colors segregate and ultimately simplify the issue.

Figure 5. Torso of Rhamphorhynchus from Hone et al. 2015. Above as originally interpreted. Below using DGS. What Hone et al. identify as a mc (metacarpal) is the radius + ulna. Scale bar = 2 cm. One rib is actually a prepubis. An extra sacral rib is identified here. The coracoids are in light blue. The light gray areas maybe an egg. A smaller second possible egg is also in gray. The sternal complex (not just the sternum) appears to be broken into several parts. Fibula parts are identified along with a second ischium.

Figure 5. Torso of Rhamphorhynchus from Hone et al. 2015. Above as originally interpreted. Below using DGS. What Hone et al. identify as a mc (metacarpal) is the radius + ulna. Scale bar = 2 cm. One rib is actually a prepubis. It is much more robust then even the anterior ribs. A fifth acral rib is identified here. The coracoids are in light blue. The light gray areas maybe an egg. A smaller second possible egg is also in gray. The sternal complex (not just the sternum) appears to be broken into several parts. Fibula parts are identified along with a second ischium.

Sternal complex
Hone et al. refer to the sternal complex as the sternum. That’s inexact. They know it’s not just a sternum, but also includes the clavicles and interclavicle. Nesbitt (2011) assumed these latter elements were missing from pterosaurs in his analysis, so such deletions have real world consequences in cladograms.

Figure 6. Rhamphorhynchus Tyrrell specimen wing GIF movie showing vane and wing tip ungual visible in high contrast.

Figure 6. Rhamphorhynchus Tyrrell specimen right wing GIF movie showing vane and wing tip ungual visible in high contrast. Note the lack of differentiated caudal vertebrae. Click to enlarge.

Wings and their membranes
Hone et al. identify an ulna where an ulna + radius is present, as described in their text. In prior works these authors have supported the deep chord wing membrane false hypothesis, despite all evidence demonstrating otherwise. Here again is another narrow chord wing membrane with a direct connection to the elbow. That the knees are drawn up does not negate this observation, which is universal in pterosaurs.

FIgure 9. Rhamphorhynchus wing GIF movie (click to enlarge) showing radius + ulna, pteroid and standard narrow chord wing membrane.

FIgure 9. Rhamphorhynchus left wing GIF movie (click to enlarge) showing radius + ulna, pteroid and standard narrow chord wing membrane.

Wing tip
Hone et al. note that both wings terminate in a squared off tip. They were not present when this specimen was prepared 50 years ago. I agree that no wing tip ungual is readily apparent here, as opposed to the many seen on several specimens previously. If you bump up the contrast on the matrix, several ungual candidates appear (Fig. 10). The “squared-off tip” described by Hone et al. looks like any other articular surface, as in the other interphalangeal joints on the wing. This should have been noted.

Figure 10. Right wing tip of Tyrrell specimen of Rhamphorhynchus showing blunt tip and, with higher contrast, several ungual candidate impressions.

Figure 10. Right wing tip of Tyrrell specimen of Rhamphorhynchus showing blunt tip and, with higher contrast, several ungual candidate impressions.

 

Figure 11. Pelvic elements of Rhamphorhynchus, Tyrrell specimen, replaced to their in vivo positions in lateral view along with the two possible egg candidates for comparison to the pelvic opening. Seems like a good fit.

Figure 11. Pelvic elements of Rhamphorhynchus, Tyrrell specimen, replaced to their in vivo positions in lateral view along with the two possible egg candidates for comparison to the pelvic opening. Seems like a good fit. The prepubis, originally identified as a rib, has no counterparts among the ribs. It is more robust and straighter.

Pelvis
Hone et al. report, “The pelvis is partially disarticulated and some elements appear to have been lost.” The ilia are both easy to see. Hone et al. report, “The proximal part of the right pubis is articulated with the right ilium, but only the articular end is visible and the rest appears to be hidden below other elements.” I did not see that. I did see both pubes scattered in the mix (Fig. 5). They are not readily apparent. Hone et al. report, “Only one ischium (?right) can be identified.” I found both (Fig. 5) parallel to each other. Hone et al. report, “Both prepubes are preserved but are in poor condition and covered by other elements. They are in close association but are not articulated with one another and lie posterior and ventral to the sacrum.” The authors did not identify the prepubes in their tracings. In ventral view the prepubes should not be covered by other elements (which elements?). I found one prepubis, misidentified as a rib by Hone et al. and the other one where they said it was. I don’t think they realize how large the prepubes are in this species of Rhamphorhynchus, which is a ‘chubbier’ pterosaur than most others owing to its long ribs, gastralia and deep prepubes. No other ribs are robust like the prepubis. And all of the anterior ribs, those likely to be more robust, but are not in this species, are accounted for. Plus it matches the darkling prepubis (Fig. 12).

Figure 12. The darkling specimen of Rhamphorhynchus, very similar to the Tyrrell specimen, showing the depth of the gastralia and prepubis.

Figure 12. The darkling specimen of Rhamphorhynchus, very similar to the Tyrrell specimen, showing the depth of the gastralia and prepubis.

The foot
traits alone nested the Tyrrell specimen within its clade as this is the only clade with penultimate pedal phalanges longer than the others (Fig. 13). Click here to see others.

Figure 13. Pes of the Tyrrell specimen of Rhamphorhynchus.

Figure 13. Pes of the Tyrrell specimen of Rhamphorhynchus.

The wing membrane
Hone et al. report, “Each wing has a more narrow chord along most of its length than seen in some specimens of Rhamphorhynchus (e.g., BSPG 1938 I 503a, the ‘DarkWing’ specimen—Frey et al., 2003) suggesting some postmortem shrinkage of the membranes (Elgin, Hone & Frey, 2011).”

There is no shrinkage!
Hone et all are refusing to face the facts. They are making up scenarios to avoid the narrow-wing morphology (Peters 2002). This pterosaur, like all others, has a narrow chord wing membrane. Hone et al acknowledge that. And so does the dark-wing specimen, as documented earlier and shown below (Fig. 14). When the wing is outstretched, as if in flight, the membrane goes with the wing finger and it is stretched between the elbow and wing tip. Any other attachment points needlessly complicate matters. Any other scenarios are excuses and just-so stories.

Figure 1. The darkwing specimen of Rhamphorhynchus. Top: in situ. Middle: Soft tissues highlighted. Bottom: Neck and forelimb restored.

Figure 15. The darkwing specimen of Rhamphorhynchus. Top: in situ. Middle: Soft tissues highlighted. Bottom: Neck and forelimb restored with wings outstretched. This is another narrow chord wing membrane when the parts are restored to their in flight position. The arrows show how much the wing would have to stretch to attach to the ankle. But there’s no muscle and bone to stretch it. Remember, in flight the tibia stick almost straight out laterally,

Biut wait… there’s more!
Hone et al. report, “Proximal to the elbow, the right tenopatagium (Fig. 6) is rather less clearly preserved than the left actinopatagium (Fig. 5), but does appear to meet the left ankle as is considered common, or even ubiquitous, for pterosaur wing membranes (Elgin,Hone & Frey, 2011).” Yeah, right… This is really reaching. This is why these guys keep rejecting my papers and why I don’t attend pterosaur symposia. They are adamant about rejecting anything I have published on. Evidently, I have (figuratively) poisoned the well. And that’s a sorry state of affairs. They will never say, “well, I guess Peters 2002 was right about the narrow chord wing membrane. It’s right here in front of us.”

You should know
Hone et al. report, “Furthermore, at least some parts of the wings have been covered with some form of transparent preservative and brush marks (e.g., swirls) are clearly visible in places on the matrix.”

Uropatagia are preserved
But due to the extreme bending of the knees, their shape cannot be determined. Hone et al. provided an extreme closeup of fibrils in a uropatagium (their figure 7, but note the singular state here as they falsely believe, based on the Sordes error, that one membrane extended from leg to leg). They reported the element on the right is the right tibia, but the right tibia is devoid of tissue, as far as I can tell. I was unable to match the extreme closeup to any other wider view shots. There does appear to be soft tissue between the left femur and tibia (remember the specimen is on its back so left is right and right is left). Their figure 8 has a wider view and represents the left tibia. Still the fibrils are close to the tibia and they provide no evidence that these are not separate uropatagia, as in all other pterosaurs.

Gut contents
Hone et al report gut contents of an indeterminate vertebrate. “most of these are distorted and difficult to identify though their overall shape appears to be that of squat cylinders. Their exact identity cannot be determined as they are incomplete and partially covered by other elements, and much of the chest cavity has calcite crystal buildup. –– These bones may represent fish or tetrapod elements, but are not part of the pterosaur as they match none of the dissociated or missing material (ribs, gastralia, sternal ribs, pteroids, pelvic elements) but instead are a sub rectangular series and associated subcircular elements that collectively may be vertebrae (Fig. 3).” Rhamphorhynchus is typically considered a fish eater as fish have been found within certain specimens. ‘Hooklets’ [= simple spikes and hook-like shapes] are found by the thousands in the coprolites. Hone et al. report, “If the diagnosis is correct, this is the first recorded coprolite for any pterosaur.”

Odd that the torso should be so upset, but the soft coprolites untouched.

Hone et al. did not consider the possibility
of an internal immature egg. The item has an oval outline (Fig. 11). And there may be a second smaller, even more immature egg in the mix (Fig. 11). Hard to tell in all that chaos.

Ontogeny
Hone et al. are correct in stating the Tyrrell specimen is adult or nearly so. But sutures are not a reliable indicator of ontogeny. Several clades fuse early and others never fuse, patterns common to lepidosaurs, not archosaurs.

Found typos
Perhaps these can be corrected since they are online:

  1. several specimens seen to have consumed fish”
  2. The uropatagium has become displaced relative to the bones even in some exceptionally preserved specimens (e.g., Sordes PIN 2585-33). The holotype is PIN 2585-3). I find no record for #33 on the Internet.

References
Hone D, Henderson DM, Therrien F and Habib MB 2015. A specimen of Rhamphorhynchus with soft tissue preservation, stomach contents and a putative coprolite. PeerJ 3:e1191; DOI 10.7717/peerj.1191

A Perfect Pterosaur: Pterodactylus scolopaciceps (n21) – part 2

Post #600

Most pterosaur fossils are incomplete, crushed and disarticulated. By contrast, Pterodactylus scolopaciceps  BSP 1937 I 18 (Broili 1938, P. kochi n21 of Wellnhofer 1970, 1991, Fig. 1) is just the opposite, complete, uncrushed and articulated. Yesterday we looked at the presence of vestigial manual digit 5.

Figure 1. Pterodactylus scolopaciceps  BSP 1937 I 18 (Broili 1938, P. kochi No. 21 of Wellnhofer 1970, 1991) complete, articulated and including soft tissue.

Figure 1. Pterodactylus scolopaciceps BSP 1937 I 18 (Broili 1938, P. kochi No. 21 of Wellnhofer 1970, 1991) complete, articulated and including soft tissue.

Today we’ll look at the wingtip unguals. Check out this image (Fig. 2) to see if you can find them first. They are no deeper than the distal joint of m4.4.

Wingtip unguals for n21, Pterodactylus scolopaciceps.

Figure 1. Wingtip unguals for n21, Pterodactylus scolopaciceps. Perhaps largely buried in the matrix on the left (but see caption in figure 2), but note the expanded cochlear joint (the knuckle) at the wing tip. Why would this be present if not for the presence of one more phalanx, the ungual, at the tip? The ungual is not covered in the right wingtip.

And here’s the color-coded interpretation of m4.4 and the ungual m4.5 for both wings.

Wingtip unguals for n21, Pterodactylus scolopaciceps color coded.

Figure 2. Wingtip unguals for n21, Pterodactylus scolopaciceps color coded. On the left the ungual may be largely buried by overlying matrix. On the other hand, we may be seeing the ungual in palmar view and the expanded region may represent the ungual. On the right the ungual is more fully exposed in lateral view. Compare to figure 2.

Traditional paleontology reports the ungual is missing from the wingtip of pterosaurs. Here is evidence to the contrary. These images also document the lack of preparation around the wing ungual. We also saw a great little wing ungual on a Pterodactylus cast from a Dublin museum two days ago. So they’re often seen, not often uncovered when buried.

Tomorrow we’ll take another look at n21, a perfect Pterodactylus, focusing on the presence of a distinct naris.

As always, I encourage readers to see specimens, make observations and come to your own conclusions. Test. Test. And test again.

Evidence and support in the form of nexus, pdf and jpeg files will be sent to all who request additional data.

References
Broili F 1938. Beobachtungen an Pterodactylus. Sitz-Bayerischen Akademie der Wissenschaten, zu München, Mathematischen-naturalischenAbteilung: 139–154.
Wellnhofer P 1970. Die Pterodactyloidea (Pterosauria) der Oberjura-Plattenkalke Süddeutschlands. Abhandlungen der Bayerischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, N.F., Munich 141: 1-133.

wiki/Pterodactylus