Ariekanerpeton: a basal seymouriamorph close to Lepospondyli + stem reptiles

Ariekanerpeton is universally considered a seymouriamorph. It turns out to be surprisingly important to the origin of reptiles, and the origin of lepospondyls (extant amphibians and kin), something that has been apparently overlooked by prior workers.

Ariekanerpeton sigalovi (Ivakhnenko 1981, Laurin 1996; PIN 2079-1; Early Permian ~280 mya, 25cm in length; Fig. 1) is represented by more than 900 specimens. None are considered fully mature due to their juvenile-type paired neural arches disarticulated from the pleurocentra. Is it possible that this genus retained juvenile traits into adulthood?

No dermal scales are present. Lateral lines are present only on aquatic larvae (with limbs). The large ones traversed arid landscapes. IMHO, that makes them adults with neotony.

I did not find
the ventrally expanded quadratojugal applied to the reconstruction by Laurin 1996 (Fig. 1). Rather the quadratojugal appears to have been rather straight.

Figure 1. Ariekanerpeton is known from over 900 specimens, none of them apparent adults. It nests at the base of the Seymouriamorpha, close to stem Lissamphibia + stem Reptilia.

Figure 1. Ariekanerpeton is known from over 900 specimens, none of them apparent adults. It nests at the base of the Seymouriamorpha, close to stem Lissamphibia + stem Reptilia. See how even a little dash of color clarifies these line illustrations?

In the LRT 
(large reptile tree, 1035 taxa) Ariekanerpeton nests at the base of the Seymouriamorpha, between Eucritta (near the base of the reptilomorphs) and Utegenia (at the base of the lepospondyls) + Bystrowiella (at the base of the stem reptiles). This taxon, therefore, is transitional between several clades. We’ve already seen that neotony attends the origin of major clades, and Ariekanerpeton fits that model 3 times!

Figure 3. Discosauricus is also known from many dozen specimens, none of whom have been adjudged to be adult. This taxon nests closer to Seymouria.

Figure 2. Discosauricus is also known from many dozen specimens, none of whom have been adjudged to be adult. This taxon nests closer to Seymouria.

Discosauricus (Fig. 2) is similar in many ways
to Ariekanerpeton, but nests on the other side of Kotlassia, closer to Seymouria.

Discosauriscus austriacus (Makowsky 1876; Klembara 1997, Klembara and Bartik 1999; Early Permian, 250 mya; Fig. 2) is also known from several hundred specimens from larvae to subadult stages. The palate was closed only in the largest specimens. Manual and pedal digits 4 had five phalanges, as in Seymouria and one more than in Ariekanerpeton. The ilium had a robust posterior process and a small anterior process.

The morphology of the atlas-axis complex is similar to that in Seymouria sanjuanensis. The neural arches start to swell slightly in specimens of late larval stage; they are completely swollen immediately after metamorphosis. The six caudal ribs should have been lateral in orientation (Fig. 2 boxed), pointing posteriorly, rather than ventrally as Klembara and Bartik illustrated them.

No digit 6 in basal seymouriamorphs
Tulerpeton, a basal amniote/reptile has 6 digits (Fig. 3). The absence of manual and pedal digit 6 in basal seymouriamorpha further isolates Tulerpeton, suggesting the extra digit appeared as a derived autapomorphy, rather than a primitive character putatively relating Tulerpeton to fish-like taxa, such as Acanthostega, which has 8 digits. Let’s not forget…

Figure 1. Tulerpeton parts from Lebedev and Coates 1995 here colorized and newly reconstructed. Manus and pes enlarged in figure 2.

Figure 3. Tulerpeton parts from Lebedev and Coates 1995 here colorized and newly reconstructed. Manus and pes enlarged in figure 2.

On the other hand…
we have not yet found any Late Devonian seymouriamorphs or reptilomorphs. And they should be there. So the number of digits in those hypothetical specimens could be six and that trait should remain an open question at present.

References
Ivakhenko MF 1981. Dscosauriidae from the Permain of Tadrzhikistan. Paleontological Journal 1981:90-102.
Klembara J 1997. The cranial anatomy of Discosauriscus Kuhn, a
seymouriamorph tetrapod from the Lower Permian of the Boskovice Furrow (Czech Republic). Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Series B. 352: 257–302.
Klembara J and Bartik I 1999. The postcranial skeleton of Discosauriscus Kuhn, a seymouriamorph tetrapod from the Lower Permian of the Boskovice Furrow (Czech Republic). Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh: Earth Sciences 90(4):287–316.
Laurin M 1996. A reevaluation of Ariekanerpeton, a lower Permian seymouriamorph (Vertebrata: Seymouriamorpha) from Tadzhikistan. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 16(4):653–665.

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