According to Wikipedia,
“The Palaeonisciformes (Palaeoniscida) are an extinct order of early ray-finned fishes (Actinopterygii). Palaeonisciformes sensu lato first appeared in the fossil record in the Late Silurian and last appeared in the Late Cretaceous.”
Adding taxa upsets this hypothesis. Now both hypotheses need to be tested.
to the fish portion of the large reptile tree (LRT, 2262 taxa, Fig 1) recovered three extant taxa that arose directly from the Palaeonisciformes. These three (Malacosteus, Engraulis, and Coilia (Figs 2, 3) shifted out of the Actionopterygia (ray-fin fish) when facial bones in two taxa, Birgeria and Kalops (Figs 2, 3), were correctly identified based on tetrapod homologies.
Another traditional ray-fin fish, Late Triassic Birgeria (Figs 2, 3), now nests between the traditional Carboniferous palaeonisciform, Kalops (Fig 2) and the three newly identified Palaeonisciformes. That makes extinct Birgeria and Kalops pertinent parts of this previously untold story of macroevolution by way of microevolution.
Earlier three members of the extinct Onychodontiformes
(Selenodus, Onychodus and Strunius) moved into the Palaeonisciformes (Fig 1). They don’t have lobe fins. Their two-part skull roof turns out to be convergent with Sarcopterygii. Let the software sort your taxon list into clades and let us know what you recover.
When Kalops was first described
(Poplln and Lund 2002;) the authors reported, “It was decided not to perform a cladistic analysis herein to search for the interrelationships of Kalops. Moreover there is not yet any established classification of lower actinopterygians resulting from an inclusive, uncontested general phylogenetic analysis. We believe such an analysis would have been based on too
limited a suite of species; it seems somewhat derisory to try narrow cladistic efforts each time a few or single new genus or species is described. Thus we have taken a more global approach to discuss the systematic status of this new genus. As in previous articles (e.g., Poplin and Lund, 2000), we use the term “Palaeoniscimorpha” (Lund et al., 1995) as a strict synonym of “Basal Actinopteri” sensu Patterson, 1982.”
We might have to wait awhile for ‘uncontested‘. The LRT provided the required ‘inclusive‘.
The LRT documents several clades of fish that evolved ray fins,
just as several clades evolved lobe fins and two clades evolved fingers and toes.
Convergence. Add more taxa so you won’t be fooled by convergence.
Convergence is rampant in the Chordata.
So don’t cherry-pick a short list of taxa while omitting others based on one, two or a dozen traits. Textbooks can be out-of-date. Always test several hundred traits in your own LRT and let the software tell you which taxa from a wide gamut list belong to novel or established clades.
Taxon exclusion remains the number one problem in paleontology. Let’s fix that.
The use of standard DGS colors
(Fig 3) helps to establish and understand tetrapod homologies in all tested taxa. Labels and arrows become superfluous. Keep your graphics simple.
If you’re not part of this revolution in chordate phylogeny
stop sitting on your hands and start building your own LRT with DGS methods. The LRT started with just 240 taxa. As in any and every scientific endeavor, replicating this experiment is essential because the current LRT hypothesis requires confirmation, refutation or modification from independent studies employing a similar taxon list and your own set of 200+ multi-state characters.
This appears to be a novel hypothesis of interrelationships.
If not please provide a citation so I can promote it here.
Ayres WO 1848. pp. 64–73. In: Proceedings of the Boston Society of Natural History, Vol. 3. Proceedings of the Boston Society of Natural History, Boston.
Ayres WO 1849. Description of a new genus of fishes, Malacosteus. Boston Journal of Natural History 6:53–64.
Figueroa RT et al (6 co-authors) 2023. Exceptional fossil preservation and evolution of the ray-finned fish brain. Nature https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-022-05666-1
Gray JE 1830. : Illustrations of Indian Zoology 1, (pl. 85).
Kenaley CP 2007. Revision of the Stoplight Loosejaw Genus Malacosteus (Teleostei: Stomiidae: Malacosteinae), with Description of a New Species from the Temperate Southern Hemisphere and Indian Ocean. Copeia. 2007 (4): 886–900.
Linnaeus C 1758. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata.
Poplin CM and Lund R 2002. Two Carboniferous fine-eyed palaeoniscoids (Pisces, Actinopterygii) from Bear Gulch (USA). Journal of Paleontology 76(6):1014–1028.
Romano C and Brinkman W 2009. Reappraisal of the lower actinopterygian Birgeria stensioei ALDINGER, 1931 (Osteichthyes; Birgeriidae) from the Middle Triassic
of Monte San Giorgio (Switzerland) and Besano (Italy). Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie – Abhandlungen. 252: 17–31.
Xu G-H, Ma X-Y and Zhao L-J 2018. A large peltopleurid fish (Actinopterygii: Peltopleuriformes) from the Middle Triassic of Yunnan and Guizhou, China. Vertebrata PalAsiatica 56(4):106–120.
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