“the branch of science concerned with classification, especially of organisms; systematics.” Taxon: a taxonomic group of any rank, such as a species, family, or class.
The large reptile tree
(LRT, 1366 taxa) has resurrected several taxa (in this case, clades) long thought to be extinct.
Figure 1. Members of the traditionally extinct Creodonta include the extant quoll (Dasyurus) and the extant Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus).
According to Wikipedia: “Creodonta” was coined by Edward Drinker Cope in 1875. Cope included the oxyaenids and the viverravid Didymictis but omitted the hyaenodontids. In 1880. he expanded the term to include Miacidae, Arctocyonidae, Leptictidae (now Pseudorhyncocyonidae), Oxyaenidae, Ambloctonidae and Mesonychidae. Cope originally placed creodonts within the Insectivora. In 1884, however, he regarded them as a basal group from which both carnivorans and insectivorans arose. Hyaenodontidae was not included among the creodonts until 1909. Over time, various groups were removed, and by 1969 it contained, as it does today, only the oxyaenids and the hyaenodontids.
In the LRT, Oxyaena and Hyaenodon are members of an extinct clade. However, Sinopa is considered a hyaenodontid, and it nests between the extant quoll (genus: Dasyurus) and the extant Tasmanian devil (genus: Sarcophilus). Sarkastodon is considered an oxyaenid and it nests as a sister to Sarcophilus. So… either the quoll and Tasmanian devil are living members of the Creodonta, or we’ll have to redefine the Creodonta.
Figure 1. Rorqual evolution from desmostylians, Neoparadoxia, the RBCM specimen of Behemotops, Miocaperea, Eschrichtius and Cetotherium, not to scale.
According to Wikipedia: “Desmostylians are the only known extinct order of marine mammals. The Desmostylia, together with Sirenia and Proboscidea (and possibly Embrithopoda), have traditionally been assigned to the afrotherian clade Tethytheria, a group named after the paleoocean Tethys around which they originally evolved. The assignment of Desmostylia to Afrotheria has always been problematic from a biogeographic standpoint, given that Africa was the locus of the early evolution of the Afrotheria while the Desmostylia have only been found along the Pacific Rim. That assignment has been seriously undermined by a 2014 cladistic analysis that places anthracobunids and desmostylians, two major groups of putative non-African afrotheres, close to each other within the laurasiatherian order Perissodactyla.”
In the LRT, desmostylians are indeed derived from anthracobunids, which, in turn, are derived from hippos and mesonychids. Mysticeti, the clade of baleen whales are derived from desmostylians. So… baleen whales are extant desmostylians.
Figure 3. Four mesonychids to scale. Here Mesonyx, Anthracobune, Paleoparadoxia and Hippopotamus are compared.
According to Wikipedia, “Mesonychidae is an extinct family of small to large-sized omnivorous–carnivorous mammals closely related to cetartiodactyls (even-toed ungulates & cetaceans) which were endemic to North America and Eurasia during the Early Paleocene to the Early Oligocene. The mesonychids were an unusual group of condylarths with a specialized dentition featuring tri-cuspid upper molars and high-crowned lower molars with shearing surfaces. They were once viewed as primitive carnivores, like the Paleocene family Arctocyonidae, and their diet probably included meat and fish. In contrast to this other family of early mammals, the mesonychids had only four digits furnished with hooves supported by narrow fissured end phalanges.”
In the LRT, mesonychids include hippos and baleen whales. So, they are extant mesonychids. On the other hand, Arctocyonidae includes Arctocyon, which nests in the unrelated marsupial clade, Creodonta (see above). Certain other traditional mesonychids, like Sinonyx and Andrewsarchus, are not mesonyhids, but nest with the elephant shrew, Rhychocyon, close to tenrecs.
Figure 1. Silvanerpeton and Gephyrostegus to the same scale. Each of the two frames takes five seconds. Novel traits are listed. This transition occurred in the early Viséan, over 340 mya. Gephyrostgeus is more robust and athletic with a larger capacity to carry and lay eggs.
According to Wikipedia, “Gephyrostegidae is an extinct family of reptiliomorph tetrapods from the Late Carboniferous including the genera Gephyrostegus, Bruktererpeton, and Eusauropleura.”
In the LRT, Gephyrostegus is the last common ancestor of the Amniota (= Reptilia). So… gephyrostegids include all living mammals, archosaurs (crocs + birds) and lepidosaurs.