Karutia: a new member of the invalid ‘Parareptilia’

Figure 1. Karutia fortunata skull as originally restored and revised here based on Candelaria and Barasaurus.

Figure 1. Karutia fortunata skull as originally restored and revised here based on Candelaria and Barasaurus.

From the Cisneros et al. abstract:
“A new parareptile from the Cisuralian Pedra de Fogo Formation of north-eastern Brazil is described. Karutia fortunata gen. et sp. nov. is the first Gondwanan member of Acleistorhinidae, a clade previously known only from North America but thought to be closely related to the Russian Lanthanosuchidae. A re-examination of parareptile phylogeny indicates that lanthanosuchids are not closely related to acleistorhinids. These results are more congruent both stratigraphically and biogeographically than the previous âlanthanosuchoidâ position for acleistorhinids, as they eliminate a 15âMa ghost lineage within parareptiles, leaving Acleistorhinidae as an exclusively Pennsylvanian/Cisuralian clade from western Pangaea. Karutia fortunata contributes to our knowledge of the early Permian diversity of Parareptilia in Gondwana, a clade previously represented only by the mesosaurid inhabitants of the Irati-Whitehill epicontinental sea in the southern portion of the supercontinent. The new parareptile joins captorhinids in the amniote record of the Pedra de Fogo Formation, improving our picture of the inland tetrapod fauna of the southern hemisphere during the Cisuralian.”

You heard it here first: ‘lanthanosuchids are not closely related to acleistorhinids’

Parareptilia is an invalid (polyphyletic) clade in the large reptile tree (LRT, 1793+ taxa).

Figure 2. Karutia overall is known from too few bits and pieces to enter the LRT.

Figure 2. Karutia overall is known from too few bits and pieces to enter the LRT.

Karutia appears to be a long-limbed owenettid. 
Ciseneros et al. following out-of-date systematics based on taxon exclusion in assigning this taxon to Parareptilia.

Figure 3. Cladogram from Cisneros et al. 2021 showing distribution on included taxa in the LRT. Massive taxon exclusion here.

Figure 3. Cladogram from Cisneros et al. 2021 showing distribution on included taxa in the LRT. Massive taxon exclusion here. And missing turtles here. Mesosaurus belongs within Diapsida, Sauropterygia. 

References
Cisneros JC et al. (6 co-authors) 2021. A new reptile from the Lower Permian of Brazil (Karutia fortunata gen. et sp. nov.) and the interrelationships of Parareptilia. Journal of Systematic Palaeontology (advance online publication)
https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/14772019.2020.1863487

https://www.ufpi.br/ultimas-noticias-ufpi/38945-pesquisa-inedita-da-ufpi-descobre-nova-especie-de-reptil-da-era-paleozoica-em-nazaria-pi

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