Chauliodus sloani (Forster in Bloch and Schneider 1801, up to 60cm in length, subset Fig. 2-4) is the extant viperfish. A tiny glowing lure from the anterior dorsal fin lure deep sea fish to the oversized teeth. Scales and maxillary teeth are retained. Apparently the temporal series (intertemporal, supratemporal and tabular) were not retained, which is almost unique among fish. The anterior dorsal fin is new based on comparisons to Cheirolepis (Fig. 1). Note the evolution of the heterocercal tail to a diphycercal tail, only one of many such convergent instances.
Biting is a big deal with Chauliodus
as those jaws go through some gymnastics at maximum aperture (Fig. 4).
and several others to come are greatly simplifying the fish family tree. I will list the many exciting changes shortly.
Forster JR 1801. in Bloch, ME and Schneider JG editors, Systema Ichthyologiae Iconibus cx Ilustratum. Post obitum auctoris opus inchoatum absolvit, correxit, interpolavit Jo. Gottlob Schneider, Saxo. Berolini. Sumtibus Auctoris Impressum et Bibliopolio Sanderiano Commissum. i-lx + 1-584.