Saturnalia skull parts!

Bronzati, Müller and Langer 2019 bring us
additional skull data for the basal sauropodomorph, Saturnalia tupiniquim (Fig. 1).

FIgure 1. GIF movie of Saturnalia skull as originally restored and using phylogenetic bracketing to restore a longer rostrum and teeth only anterior to the orbit.

FIgure 1. GIF movie of Saturnalia skull as originally restored and using phylogenetic bracketing to restore a longer rostrum and teeth only anterior to the orbit.

Saturnalia tupiniquim (Langer et al. 1999) Carnian, Late Triassic period, ~225 mya, 1.5 m in length, was one of the oldest true dinosaurs yet found. It was basal to the clade Prosauropoda, 

Figure 1. Grallator illustration from Li et al. 2019 with two basal phytodinosaur possible sisters to the track maker, Pampadromaeus and Saturnalia.

Figure 2. Grallator illustration from Li et al. 2019 with two basal phytodinosaur possible sisters to the track maker, Pampadromaeus and Saturnalia.

The skull was recently described (Bronzati, Müller and Langer 2019). It had a large orbit, like Pantydraco. More cervicals were present and each one was elongated, creating a much longer neck. The scapula was narrow in the middle. The forelimbs were more robust with a large deltopectoral crest on the humerus. The hind limbs were more robust. The calcaneum did not have such a large tuber.

Figure 2. Subset of the LRT focusing on the Phytodinosauria.

Figure 3. Subset of the LRT focusing on the Phytodinosauria.

Adding scores to Saturnalia
provided an opportunity to review scores for other phytodinosaurs in the large reptile tree (LRT, 1568 taxa). These changes resulted in small modifications to the tree topography and higher Bootstrap scores (Fig. 2). Basal phytodinosaurs still give rise to the clades Sauropodomorpha and Ornithischia.


References
Bronzati M, Müller RT, Langer MC 2019. Skull remains of the dinosaur Saturnalia tupiniquim (Late Triassic, Brazil): With comments on the early evolution of sauropodomorph feeding behaviour. PLoS ONE 14(9): e0221387. https://doi.org/ 10.1371/journal.pone.0221387
Langer MC, Abdala F, Richter M, and Benton M. 1999. A sauropodomorph dinosaur from the Upper Triassic (Carnian) of southern Brazil. Comptes Rendus de l’Académie des Sciences, 329: 511-517.
Langer MC 2003. The pelvic and hind limb anatomy of the stem-sauropodomorph Saturnalia tupiniquim (Late Triassic, Brazil). PaleoBios, 23(2): 1-30.

wiki/Saturnalia

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