Those leaping rodents from Africa,
jerboas (genus: Allactaga) and jumping hares (genus: Pedetes, Fig. 1), are more closely related to chinchillas and guinea pigs (Cavia), than to the marsupial kangaroos (Macropus) they converge with.
Allactaga major (Cuvier 1836; Late Miocene to present; snout-vent length 5–15cm; Fig. 1) is the extant jerboa, a nocturnal bipedal rodent that burrows into sand during the day. The long hind limbs help it hop, like a kangaroo, zig-zagging over long distances, and avoid attacking owls. They can hurdle several feet in a single bounce. Some have short ears, others have giant ears for cooling. Closest relatives in the LRT include Pedetes and Chinchilla, not the traditional Mus.
Pedetes capensis (Illiger 1811; snout-vent length: 35-45cm; Figs. 1, 2) is the extant South African springhare, a diurnal burrower and a nocturnal hopper native to South Africa. Pedal digit 1 is absent. Young are born with fur and are active within days.
Cuvier F 1836. Proceedings of the Zoololgical Society of London 1836:141.
Illiger 1811. Prodromus systematis mammalium et avium additis terminis zoographicis utriusque classis, eorumque versione germanica. Sumptibus C. Salfeld, Berolini [Berlin]: [I]-XVIII, -301.