The rare tooth-billed pigeon
or manumea, (Didunculus strigirostris, Figs. 1, 2) is considered by Wikipedia “a large pigeon found only in Samoa. It has a large, curved, and hooked bright red bill with tooth-like projections on the lower mandible. The genus name means ‘little dodo.'” The parrot-like beak arose by convergence with parrots.
Shapiro et al. 2002
used DNA to nest the solitaire (Pezophaps) with the dodo (Raphus) with outgroups including the Nicobar pigeon (Caloenas), the crowned pigeon (Goura) and the tooth-billed pigeon (Didunculus (Figs 1, 2) in order of increasing distance.
the large reptile tree (LRT, 1191 taxa) found Didunculus to be basal to the solitaire (Pezophaps), the dodo (Raphus) but more closely to another large flightless island bird, the adzebill (Aptornis). Pigeons, like Columba and Caloenas, nested is another clade, one that also includes the black vulture (Coragyps) and its new sister, Goura, the crested pigeon. So, once again, we have a DNA/trait mismatch. Close, but no cigar.
Descendants of ocean-going skuas
(genus: Catharacta) could have populated the remote and widespread islands (Fig. 4) on which many of the taxa in figure 3 can be found. I have not yet found a skua or another taxon closer to the pigeons and New World vultures, so, for now, Catharacta will have to suffice as a model. Suggestions are welcome.
The skua, Catharacta
(Fig. 5) also joins the LRT.
Shapiro B et al. (7 co-authors) 2002. Flight of the Dodo. Science Brevia 295:1683.