Hopefully this is going to be the last time
the American Museum of Natural History embarrasses itself with bogus pterosaur tricks. We looked at problems from the original 2014 AMNH pterosaur display here and elsewhere. Evidently they have decided to stop using math, physics and modern analogs, alas, to their disgrace… while cartooning (Fig. 1) the bird-like pterosaurs under the guise of a scientific exhibition.
Above is how the American Museum of Natural History
(AMNH) imagines the takeoff of Pteranodon from calm seas (Fig. 1, AMNH webpage). Not credible. Not accurate, either with those deep chord wing membranes, not yet found in any fossils.
Above is how the living pelican
(Pelecanus) actually takes off from gulf waters (Fig. 2 and YouTube video above it in slow motion, click to view). The Pteranodon-like pelican lifts its great wings out of the water to develop lift and thrust. Ground effect keeps it out of the water after one flap. Water is where drag occurs. And legs kicking or hopping has never lifted any pelican out of the water. The wings, fully extended as taut airfoils, do 99% of the work. The foot hops off of wave tops after flight has been initiated, are negligible thrust producers.
Above is how ReptileEvolution.com
imagines Pteranodon floating on the sea (Fig. 4) using its air-filled wing bones as lateral floatation devices. The torso and skull were also lighter than an equal volume of water, as in all floating birds.
Earlier we looked at several water take-off scenarios
for pterosaurs using Anhanguera as a model (Fig. 4). Keep those wings out of the water where they can develop thrust and lift with full extension and taut membranes. A sagging wing membrane (Fig. 1) develops neither lift nor thrust.
Above is how the heretical hypothesis
imagines the takeoff of Pteranodon from the ground (Fig. 4): just like a crane, pelican or other large bird. For a water takeoff, just add water and keep the wings off the surface. Flapping so close to the water takes advantage of ‘ground effect’ where lift is increased when the wing is close to the ground.
either the AMNH model is made of helium or hung on a string, or the sea is made of jello, because against all laws of physics somehow those tiny fingers and feet are keeping the head and torso above the watery surface. If anyone can defend the AMNH scenario, please make comment below.
Just found out: The quad fly hypothesis goes back to 1943!
Daffy Duck in “To Duck or Not to Duck” was using the quad style to fly (Fig. 6) back in 1943, just before Elmer Fudd fired a shotgun at him. Compare this technique to Pteranodon in figure 1 and you’ll see convergence on a massive scale.