(Fig. 1) is an early Cretaceous ornithurine bird known from hundreds of specimens (Chiappe et al. 1999) often preserved with full plumage. The skull is of the typical archosauromorph diapsid plan. The premaxilla is very long and toothless, like that of modern birds. The premaxilla extends to the frontal, separates the nasals and greatly reduces the maxilla. This was a bird with large manual claws, a substantial breastbone and a pygostyle instead of a long bony tail.
The problem is
the skull of Confuciusornis has not been accurately traced (examples in black on Fig. 1). These prior examples do not attempt to capture the detail clearly available from the photographic data. Here DGS (digital graphic segregation) more accurately traces the elements then assembles them back to their in vivo positions.
The resulting skull
greatly resembles that of Struthio and other basal birds and demonstrates the loss of teeth early in the evolution of ornithomorph birds.
Chiappe et al. 1999 considered Confuciusornis the sister group of a clade composed of the Enantiornithomorpha and the Ornithomorpha. In the large reptile tree (now 592 taxa) it nests one node up, at the base of the Ornithomorpha.
This is but one more example
of a method that should be used universally for interpreting and reconstructing crushed fossils, DGS. This is also one more example that contradicts the tradition that one has to see the fossil firsthand in order to accurately assess its character traits. Several other examples have been posted previously. Keyword: DGS.
Chiappe LM, Ji S-A, Ji Q, and Norell M 1999. Anatomy and systematics of the Confuciusornithidae (Theropoda: Aves) from the Late Mesozoic of Northeastern China. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 242: 1-89.