Reconstruction from jumbled scraps: the squamate, Kuroyuriella

Figure 1. The skull of Kuroyuriella reconstructed from bone scraps (above), most of which are layered on top of one another. Not all elements are identified, but enough are to nest this taxon with Ophisaurus.

Figure 1. The skull of Kuroyuriella (represented by two specimens of different size) reconstructed from bone scraps (above), most of which are layered on top of one another. Not all elements are identified, but enough are known to score and nest this taxon with Ophisaurus.

When provided disarticulated scraps,
start with the easy bones, then fill in the gaps in the puzzle. Sometimes, as in Kuroyuriella mikikoi (Evans and Matsumoto 2015, Early Cretaceous), there are enough parts to more or less recreate the skull most similar (among tested taxa in the large reptile tree) to that of Ophisaurus and basal to Myrmecodaptria and CryptolacertaEvans and Matsumoto nested Kuroyuriella  between Huehuecuetzpalli and the suprageneric clade Rhynchocephalia, both well outside the Squamata.

From the online paper:
“Together, SBEI 1510 and SBEI 1608, as type and referred specimen, characterize Kuroyuriella mikikoi as a small lizard having paired frontals with deep subolfactory processes; a median parietal without a parietal foramen, with sculpture of low relief, and with lateral shelves that restricted the adductor muscle origins to the ventral surface; upper temporal fenestrae that were at least partially closed by expanded postorbitofrontals; an unsculptured maxilla with a strongly concave narial margin; a large flared prefrontal; and a slender, relatively small pterygoid. In the shallow lower jaw, the teeth are closely packed, cylindrical, and pleurodont with lingual replacement; a subdental ridge is present; the dentary bears a tapering coronoid process that braces the coronoid, and has a posterior extension with a curved free margin; the surangular, angular, and splenial are all present and the surangular is shallow; the adductor fossa is open but not expanded; and the articular surface is asymmetrical.

In order to explore the affinities of Kuroyuriella mikikoi, it was coded into the matrix of Gauthier et al. (2012), as extended by Longrich et al. (2012) (184 characters coded out of 622, 70.4% missing data),

The consistent placement of Kuroyuriella on the squamate stem is problematic and probably artifactual, but whether the weighted analysis is giving a more accurate placement is uncertain. Of the derived character states possessed by Kuroyuriella, 76 [1] (postorbital partly occludes upper temporal fenestra), 364 [1] (dentary coronoid process extends beyond level of coronoid apex), 367 [2] (coronoid process of dentary overlaps most of anterolateral surface of coronoid), and 369 [2] (dentary terminates well posterior to coronoid apex) provide some support for placement of Kuroyuriella on the stem of scincids, and 129 [1] (prefrontal extends to mid-orbit), 104 [1] (absence of parietal foramen) and 385 [1] (posterior mylohyoid foramen posterior to coronoid apex) would be consistent with that placement. However, given the considerable difference between the results using equal weighting and Implied Weighting, Kuroyuriella remains incertae sedis pending recovery of more complete material.”

Figure 2. Ophisaurus, the extant glass snake or legless lizard is close to Kuroyuriella in the large reptile tree.

Figure 2. Ophisaurus, the extant glass snake or legless lizard is close to Kuroyuriella in the large reptile tree.

Here
Ophisaurus (Fig. 2) and Kuroyuriella both nest will within the Squamata, not ouside. of it in the large reptile tree. Reconstruction of the skull helps to ‘see’ this lizard as it was. I can’t imagine how difficult it would be to do try to establish traits  with a jumble of disarticulated bones.

As you’ll see, I think the parietal foramen was present. The parietal may have had longer posterior processes, now broken off.

References
Evans SE and Matsumoto R 2015. An assemblage of lizards from the Early Cretaceous of Japan. Palaeontologia Electronica 18.2.36A: 1-36
palaeo-electronica.org/content/2015/1271-japanese-fossil-lizards
http://palaeo-electronica.org/content/2015/1271-japanese-fossil-lizards

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