Pterosaur launch talk from 2012 on YouTube

Dr Mike Habib
gave a one-hour talk on pterosaurs and his hypothesis of forelimb takeoff back in 2012 when the idea was novel.. That talk was uploaded to YouTube here. In counterpoint back then we discussed Habib’s forelimb launch hypothesis for pterosaurs here and here. We’ll continue with that discussion today.

Habib reports
that he does not believe or is not aware of flightless pterosaurs, but I think he was aware of Jme-Sos 2028, which was in ReptileEvolution in 2011 and entered the literature in 2013. Habib does not believe in bipedal pterosaurs, despite bipedal tracks. He notes a tendency to produce giant flyers, but actually they quite rare with regard to taxon number, and were only present in the latest Cretaceous. Habib does not recognize tiny pterosaurs as adults and he does not believe in multi-modality (walking disconnected from flying), despite fossil evidence for disconnected hind and forelimbs. Habib did not discuss pterosaur origins.

Habib used CT scanning
for figuring out the inner and outer diameter of long pterosaur bones. The bone is thinner than in birds, about the proportions of a cardboard paper tube. Key to Habib’s hypothesis, he notes the forelimbs are stronger than the hind limbs in pterosaurs. He notes the hind limbs of pterosaurs are average-to-weak compared to birds. Furthermore, Habib reports that take-off in birds is ‘hindlimb’ driven with takeoff initiated 80-90% by leaping, the rest with a downbeat. Even in hummingbirds with their tiny legs and feet the ratio is 50-50.
Habib notes that initial lift is difficult in all flying creatures. The vampire bat uses its forelimbs to catapult itself 2 feet vertically before flapping. That is several times its standing height. He notes launch speed is related to wing loading (wing area/weight), which can increase substantially after a meal, which brings us to…
Quadrupedal launch in pterosaurs
As discussed several years ago at various posts (see above) unfortunately Dr. Habib ignores the literature on bipedal pterosaur tracks and the origin of pterosaurs from long-legged and bipedal fenestrasaur precursors. Late in the talk he gives credit to Dr. Padian, who championed bipedality among pterosaurs, but omly imagined bipedal ancestors, and had nothing to do with discovering fenestrasaurs. When you make all pterosaurs ungainly quadrupeds, shackled by a membrane that connects wing tips to ankles, you put pterosaurs at an unnatural and completely imagined disadvantage. Habib also imagined short manual digits that enabled digit 4 to act like grasshopper hind limbs to catapult them into the sky.
All pterosaurs were capable of bipedal locomotion.
They could balance with their feet beneath their armpits, like birds do. Quadrupedal ptero tracks were all produced by a few clades of beachcombing pterosaurs during their browsing mode. All of these had relatively small wing claws. Other pterosaurs had much larger trenchant manual claws, ill-suited for contact with the ground.
With regard to forelimb launch,
all of the animated pterosaurs that Dr. Habib approved appear to be helium filled as the first down flap comes a long time after the initial launch. Moreover, none of the animations show the pterosaur leaping several times its standing height, as in the vampire bat. Worse yet, the giant wing fingers, which initially are folded posteriorly during the forelimb leap need to be extended prior to or at the acme of the leap, but initially there is no airspace to do this. Based on the orientation of the ventral orientation of the forelimbs during launch and recoil, the wing finger has to extend ventrally in the plane of the wing, This is hazardous to the swinging wing tip if it contacts the launch pad. The ground gets in the way unless the pterosaur is high enough to avoid this. All pterosaur takeoff animations authorized by Dr. Habib appear to glaze over this point, as if the long wing finger had no mass or moment arm and the initial leap never experiences recoil in the ventral plane. Rather the wings imeediately pop out effortlessly. Even a lightweight fishing rod takes a little time and effort to get from one point to another. As a suitable analog, imagine doing a leaping pushup high enough to extend and produce a downflap with fishing rods rotating ventrally in both hands. Much better to flap and run from the start for maximum ground speed and thrust.
If a heavily muscled 6’ tall kangaroo
cannot initially leap its own height, or more, from a standing start, it seems unikely that a larger pterosaur can do this in the manner of tiny vampire bats. Size matters.
Large birds flap with great effort to get their mass off the ground or water. That seems to be a good model for large pterosaurs as well.
Quetzalcoatlus running like a lizard prior to takeoff.

Figure 10. Quetzalcoatlus running like a lizard prior to takeoff. Click to animate.

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