The BES SC 111 specimen of Macrocnemus – DGS helps reconstruct it

Previously considered (Renesto S and Avanzini M 2002) a juvenile due to its size, the BES SC 111 specimen of Macrocnemus (Fig. 1) sheds light on the origin of such diverse lineages as the Tanystropheidae (Langobardisaurus, Fig. 2) and the Fenestrasauria (Cosesaurus through the Pterosauria, Fig. 2). It also nests at the base of other Macrocnemus specimens including the oddly bizarre, Dinocephalosaurus (Fig. 3).

Figure 1. Click to enlarge. Stages in the DGS tracing and reconstruction of the the Macrocnemus BES SC 111 skull. I did not realize the the palatal bones were so visible. There's a palatine and ectopterygoid over the nasal and frontal, for instance. So earlier mistakes were made that are corrected here. The right mandible is traced here only along its ventral rim.

Figure 1. Click to enlarge. Stages in the DGS tracing and reconstruction of the the Macrocnemus BES SC 111 skull. I did not realize the the palatal bones were so visible. There’s a palatine and ectopterygoid over the nasal and frontal, for instance. So earlier mistakes were made that are corrected here. The right mandible is traced here only along its ventral rim.

Derived from
an early Triassic sister to Huehuecuetzpalli and/or Jesairosaurus, the BES SC 111 specimen seems to have at least a depression in the dorsal maxilla that will ultimately become an antorbital fenestra in the Fenestrasauria. Note the resemblance of this skull to that of Cosesaurus and Langobardisaurus (Fig. 2). They all share a retracted naris, large orbit, bent quadrate, short postorbital region and relatively short teeth.

The reduction of pedal digit 5 in all known Macrocnemus specimens demonstrates the BES SC 111 nests at the base of the Macrocnemus lineage. An unknown sister without this reduction would be basal to Langobardisaurus and the Fenestrasauria.

Figure 2. Macrocnemus BES SC 111 compared to sister taxa, Langobardisaurus, Cosesaurus and the basal pterosaur, MPUM 6009. Preserved loose, the orientation of the ectopterygoids could go either way, with the narrow tip contacting the maxilla instead, as in Dinocephalosaurus (Fig. 3).

Figure 2. Macrocnemus BES SC 111 compared to sister taxa, Langobardisaurus, Cosesaurus and the basal pterosaur, MPUM 6009. 

Figure 3. Dinocephalosaurus to scale with the largest Macrocnemus specimen and the smaller ones from figure 2.

Figure 3. Dinocephalosaurus to scale with a large Macrocnemus specimen, T4822, and the smaller ones from figure 2.

The take-away from this is: large odd reptiles sometimes have their origin in not-so-large, not-so-odd reptiles like the BES SC 111 specimen. At the same time, small odd reptiles may have the same origin. Make sure you add the plain, old reptiles to your cladograms. That’s where the spectacular taxa have their origin.

References
Li C, Zhao L-J and Wang L-T 2007A new species of Macrocnemus (Reptilia: Protorosauria) from the Middle Triassic of southwestern China and its palaeogeographical implication. Science in China D, Earth Sciences 50(11)1601-1605.
Nopcsa F 1931. Macrocnemus nicht Macrochemus. Centralblatt fur Mineralogie. Geologic und Palaeontologie; Stuttgart. 1931 Abt B 655–656.
Peyer B 1937. Die Triasfauna der Tessiner Kalkalpen XII. Macrocnemus bassanii Nopcsa. Abhandlung der Schweizerische Palaontologische Geologischen Gesellschaft pp. 1-140.
Renesto S and Avanzini M 2002. Skin remains in a juvenile Macrocnemus bassanii Nopsca (Reptilia, Prolacertiformes) from the Middle Triassic of Northern Italy. Jahrbuch Geologie und Paläontologie, Abhandlung 224(1):31-48.
Romer AS 1970. Unorthodoxies in Reptilian Phylogeny. Evolution 25:103-112.

wiki/Macrocnemus

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