Phylogenetic bracketing and pterosaurs – part 2

Two posts ago we looked at part 1 of this topic.

Since pterosaurs (and other tritosaurs) nest between rhynchocephalians and squamates, there are a few traits they likely shared based on phylogenetic bracketing (unless specifically excepted based on fossil evidence). Putting the rhynchocephalians aside for the moment, according to Evans (2003) squamate traits include:

(1)  a specialized quadrate articulation with a dorsal joint typically supplied by the deeply placed supratemporal, reduced squamosal, and distally expanded paroccipital process of the braincase; reduction/loss of pterygoid/quadrate overlap; loss of quadratojugal — all present in basal tritosaurs, but quadrate becomes immobile in Macrocnemus and later taxa.

(2) loss of attachment between the quadrate and epipterygoid, with the development of a specialized ventral synovial joint between the epipterygoid and pterygoid — also present up to Huehuecuetzpalli, but absent in Macrocnemus and later taxa.

(3) subdivision of the primitive metotic fissure of the braincase to give separate openings for the vagus nerve (dorsally) and the perilymphatic duct and glossopharyngeal nerve (via the lateral opening of the recesses scalae tympani ventrally). This leads to the development of a secondary tympanic window for compensatory movements and is associated with expansion of the perilymphatic system and closure of the medial wall of the otic capsule — in fossil tritosaurs these details may not be known and certainly not by me… yet.

(4) loss of ventral belly ribs (gastralia) — Basal tritosaurs, up to Homoeosaurus have gastralia. Then they don’t until Macrocnemus and all later taxa.

(5) emargination of the anterior border of the scapulocoracoid — Basal tritosaurs share this trait. Macrocnemus and tanystropheids refill the emargination. Fenestrasaurs, including pterosaurs expand the emargination resulting in a strap-like scapula and stem-like coracoid, both representing the posterior rims of these bones.

(6) hooked fifth metatarsal with double angulation — shared with tritosaurs and more complex mesotarsal joint — in tritosaurs the mesotarsal joint is simple.

(7a) a suite of soft tissue characters including greater elaboration of the vomeronasal apparatus;

(7b) a single rather than paired meniscus at the knee;

(7c) the presence of femoral and preanal organs;

(7d) fully evertible hemipenes;

(7e) and pallets on the ventral surface of the tongue tip — none of these have been noted in soft tissue fossils.

Evans SE 2003. At the feet of the dinosaurs: the origin, evolution and early diversification of squamate reptiles (Lepidosauria: Diapsida). Biological Reviews, Cambridge 78: 513–551.


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